|Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 (also known as Argireline )
The Active Ingredient in Relax-A-Line™ Topical Serum is Acetyl Hexapeptide 3. It is a non-toxic amino-peptide developed specifically to reduce wrinkles and the signs of premature aging. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 is a cost-effective alternative to injections and surgical procedures. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 temporarily limits the overproduction and release of neurotransmitters that initiate and control the intensity of facial muscle contractions. This reduction in intensity reduces and prevents the formation of dynamic wrinkles that make your skin look aged. This powerful ingredient reduces muscle contractions in a non-paralytic fashion and without toxic side effects. It is naturally derived and non-irritating to the skin. Attaching the hexapeptide to the fatty acid, acetyl, allows the resulting amino-peptide to be easily absorbed into the skin.
At a 10% concentration, Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 has been shown to reduce the depth of wrinkles up to 30% after 30 days of trial use. (source: International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 24, No 5, p.303, October 2002). Currently, doctors are beginning to recommend use of Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 skin serums in conjunction with paralytic injections to prolong those results.
Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapetide
Found in SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution serum. Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapeptide-1 (also known as Octapeptide or SNAP-8). This more powerful peptide is the elongated daughter of the acetyl hexapeptide molecule. It can significantly modulate muscle contraction thus preventing the formation of lines and wrinkles that are caused by repeated movement. It is especially effective in reducing wrinkle depth while acetyl hexapeptide is more effective in reducing surface muscle tension.
One of the Active Ingredients in Age-Limit Advanced Refinishing Serum is Arginine. It is an amino acid that binds to the pure glycolic acid molecule in the serum. Once bonded, it allows for controlled delivery of glycolic acid into the skin over a prolonged period of time thus reducing irritation that usually accompanies AHA use.
Soluble Beta Glucans are extremely effective in increasing moisture retention and calming irritated skin. As Biological Response Modifiers, they also help to activate the immune system of the skin, challenging skin to repair itself at a deep level where sensitivity starts. Beta Glucans are one of the Active Ingredients used in Calming Bio-Lipid Repair Creme.
(Alpha Hydroxy Acid) Found in Age-Limit Advanced Refinishing Serum, Alpha Hydroxy Acids are a group of naturally occurring acids which are derived from certain plants and fruits. The most commonly used form of AHA is Glycolic Acid, which comes from sugar cane. Glycolic Acid dissolves the “glue” that holds dead skin cells together in the epidermis. Once loosened up, these dead skin cells can be easily dissolved or exfoliated to reveal new skin underneath. Glycolic acid reduces and prevents fine lines, lightens hyperpigmentation, and unclogs pores.
Green Tea Extract
Calming Bio-Lipid Repair Creme includes Green Tea Extract, a powerful antioxidant that protects skin from free radical damage that causes premature aging. The polyphenols in green tea act as free radical scavengers soaking up these unstable molecules before they can damage the collagen layer. Green tea extract has also been shown to soothe, heal and calm irritated skin.
Hyaluronic Acid is a naturally occurring substance found throughout the body. This is the base ingredient in both Relax-A-Line™ Topical Serum and Eye Bright Treatment Serum. It plays an important role in tissue hydration, lubrication and cellular function. Used as moisturizer, hyaluronic acid results in increased smoothness, softening and decreased wrinkles. It is an excellent hydrator used frequently during post-peel procedures to lubricate and soothe new skin cells. It offers an excellent environment for the growth of new cells and healing. It is extensively used by the cosmetic industry and by dermatologists in anti-aging and moisturizing products as HA is very hydroscopic (absorbs and retains water). Hyaluronic acid can absorb over 1000 times its weight in water.
Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract
The hydrolyzed rice bran extract in our Eye Bright Treatment Serum softens and brightens the skin around the eyes. The extract regulates melanin production and has been used in far eastern cultures for years to help brighten and lighten the complexion. Rice bran extract also contains lipoic acid, an antioxidant and vitamin B5, (niacin) to help improve cellular circulation.
The Lactic Acid in our Age-Limit Advanced Refinishing Serum is derived from milk sugar. Lactic Acid belongs to the family of alpha hydroxy acids. It is less irritating to the skin than the fruit- and sugar cane-derived AHAs. Lactic Acid dissolves the “glue” that holds dead skin cells together in the epidermis. Once loosened up, these dead skin cells can be easily dissolved or exfoliated to reveal new skin underneath.
L- Ascorbic Acid (also known as Vitamin C )
The Active Ingredient in C + Firming Serum is L-Ascorbic Acid. It is the most effective form of Vitamin C and acts as a powerful antioxidant. L-Ascorbic Acid is the only form of Vitamin C that is easily absorbed by the skin and is a key element in any anti-aging skincare regimen.
Skin is exposed to a variety of environmental insults on a daily basis. UVA/UVB radiation, smoke, air pollution and stress all contribute to the free radical/oxidation process that breaks down the collagen layer of your skin. During this oxidation process, environmental insults cause the skin to form free radicals (O1 molecules) that need to attach to other molecules to become stable (O2 molecules). These free radicals attach to the skin's collagen molecules. This contributes to the breakdown of this collagen layer. Skin starts to look old and loses its natural firmness and elasticity. L-Ascorbic Acid protects your skin from environmental damage and prevents the formation of free radicals. L-Ascorbic Acid is necessary for collagen production and helps to stimulate your skin to produce healthy collagen layers. Over time, the L-Ascorbic Acid in the C + Firming Serum will help to reduce hyperpigmentation, lighten brown spots and improve the texture and firmness of your skin for a younger-looking, more radiant appearance.
The 12% concentration of L-Ascorbic Acid in the C + Firming Serum is formulated at a lower ph to ease absorption. It is suspended in a simple stabilizing solution to maintain the effectiveness of the Vitamin C over time.
Oxido Reductases is a powerful antioxidant agent that helps to reduce the oxidation process that can lead to premature aging. This agent is used in our Eye Bright Treatment Serum. Oxido Reductases acts as a free radical scavenger, neutralizing free radical molecules in the skin that can lead to collagen/elastin damage. Oxido Reductases has also been shown to have skin lightening properties.
Palmitoyl Oligopeptides (also known as palmitoyl pentapeptide and Matrixyl) is a new amino-peptide (five amino acids linked together and attached to a fatty acid) developed by Sederma SA. It is one of the active ingredients found in Firming Peptide Eye Creme, and SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution serum. Researchers have found that palmitolyl oligopeptides, when added to a culture of fibroblasts (key skin cells), stimulates collagen, elastin and glucosaminoglycans production. These are the key components of healthy-looking skin.
Clinically proven to reduce wrinkle depth by increasing hyaluronic acid and collagen production. Like Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (PO)is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of collagen combined with palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to enhance its affinity towards human skin. As with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, one could look at PO as a man-made precursor to collagen. PO was developed through research to identify a substance that would behave similarly to retinoic acid but without its drawbacks, especially in regards to synthesizing collagen.
The reported results are as follows: In vitro: Increases collagen production by the fibroblasts by as much as 350%. Increases hyaluronic acid production by the fibroblasts by as much as 146%. In vivo: The following statistics were gathered using image analysis of volunteers who used crèmes containing a 3% concentration of Biopeptide-CL for 28 days.
Surface roughness -- Reduced 17% Mean depth of wrinkles -- Reduced 23% Depth of main wrinkle -- Reduced 39% Skin thickness -- Increased 4%
The increase in skin thickness was considered especially notable and contrasts with the 6% reduction of the skin thickness that occurs after 10 years of aging. The study concludes to state that PO is a potent active cosmetic ingredient without the adverse effects (including irritation, dehydration or long-term toxicity and instability) characteristic of retinoids.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide 3
Found in Firming Peptide Eye Creme and SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution serum. Clinically proven to regenerate the skin's upper layers by stimulating collagen production, thickening the epidermis. Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of the C-terminal portion of collagen I (the most common type of the nineteen forms of collagen) combined with palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to enhance its affinity towards human skin. One could look at Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 as a man-made precursor to collagen I. When this protein is added to cultured human fibroblasts it enhances the synthesis of collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin.
The research behind Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 was begun to find specific solutions to address aging factors in the skin, particularly the thinning of the sinusoidal layer between the dermis and the epidermis. The goal was to find a short peptide that would stimulate fibroblasts in the skin to produce key components of the extra-cellular matrix such as collagen and hyaluronic acid. The reasons for this follow.
As we age, the skin gets thinner. Part of this process is that the sinusoidal dermo-epidermal interface layer between the dermis and the epidermis gets flatter. It is this layer that allows nutrients to flow from the dermis to the epidermis. As we age this layer gets flatter and this reduces the area of exchange interface between the dermis and the epidermis. This can significantly affect the quality of the epidermis. The loss of adhesion between these two structures, which is normally provided by collagen IV and collagen VII, results in nutritional exchange deficiencies and a slowing of biological processes in the skin.
Collagen is the main constituent of the skin's extra-cellular matrix. In fact, collagen as a whole makes up approximately 25% of all protein found in the human body. In young skin, the collagen fibers are held in place by orderly bonds, to form a sort of net. The "holes" of this net are filled by proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans forming the glycan network. The glycan network is a water-saturated gel in which water-soluble molecules and ions are able to circulate. It is this water that gives skin its visco-elasticity and its turgidity. A key molecule in this process is hyaluronic acid, as it can hold up to 1000 times its weight in water. A reduction in the quantity of interstitial glycans (including hyaluronic acid) leads to a loss of water retention and the glycan network collapses onto itself. With age, this gel tends to sag, hindering cell migration and mitosis. As the number of fibroblasts, mastocytes and blood vessels falls, the dermis atrophies.
Studies were carried out to see if Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 would affect the sinusoidal dermo-epidermal interface layer and if it would help to stimulate factors making up the glycan network. As mentioned above, collagen IV and collagen VII are the primary constituents of the sinusoidal dermo-epidermal interface layer between the dermis and the epidermis that allows nutrients to flow from the dermis to the epidermis. In vitro, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 was found to stimulate collagen IV synthesis by 100-327% and to stimulate hyaluronic acid synthesis by 267%. In vivo Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 was found to stimulate collagen synthesis by 30-117%. The next step was to use image analysis to determine the affect Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 had on wrinkled skin. The six-month results are listed below, though significant results were seen in two months.
Results: Mean wrinkle depth -- Reduced 17% Surface area: deep wrinkles -- Reduced 68% Surface area: moderate wrinkles -- Reduced 51% Mean density of wrinkled area -- Reduced 47% Skin roughness -- Reduced 16% Main wrinkle volume -- Reduced 24%
These results show that Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 had a dramatic effect on reducing the quantity and depth of wrinkles. It also improved surface smoothness. The studies behind Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 give a clear description of the mechanism for how this is accomplished and also indicate that Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 is stimulating natural biological processes to reverse the aging process of the skin. In addition, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 is very well tolerated by the skin.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide 3 (and 7)
Found in Firming Peptide Eye Creme and SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution serum. Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 has been clinically proven to suppress the body's production of interleukins, the chemical messengers that trigger inflammation. Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 is a synthetic peptide that is a fragment of immunoglobulin G that has been combined with palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic and thus enhance its affinity towards human skin. Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 was discovered through research to learn how to suppress the body's production of interleukins, particularly IL6, since these are the chemical messengers that trigger the body's acute inflammatory response.
Inflammation is a function of immunity and is a protective response to injury or destruction of tissue. This is the body's way of walling off the injurious agent and the injured tissue. Under normal circumstances, very little IL6 is secreted and its secretion is strictly controlled. However, as we age this regulation system develops defects, and significant levels of IL6 appear in the plasma even when there is no inflammatory stimulus. This results in high levels of inflammatory proteins in the tissues and a loss of healing potential. This process has been linked with breast cancer, osteoporosis, anemia, autoimmunity and slower tissue regeneration.
The hormone DHEA is directly responsible for maintaining the regulation of the production of IL6. This has even been demonstrated in the skin: when DHEA is present in sufficient amounts it is converted into a steroid hormone, androstenediol, which is directly responsible for maintain IL6 production and for maintaining local homeostasis of cytokine and interleukin production. As we age, DHEA is reduced and this directly leads to cytokine deregulation and the over-production of some interleukins and the under-production of others. As mentioned above, IL6 production is increased with negative consequences. Since UV radiation can increase IL6 production by five times, this process can significantly impact the skin.
The researchers' goal thus became to find a peptide that would mimic the effects of DHEA without DHEA's potential for being converted into estrogen, since estrogen is a hormone that is not licensed for cosmetic purposes. Specifically they wanted to find a peptide that would target IL6 and inhibit its production.
The results: 1.) At concentrations from 10 ppm, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 induces a marked reduction in the secretion of the cytokine IL6. This reduction is progressive and depends on the concentration of the peptide: baseline secretion may be inhibited by up to 40%.
2.) Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 reduced levels of IL6 after cells were exposed to UV radiation by up to 86% even though IL6 had been increased by about 20 fold by the UV.
These results show that Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 is able to affect baseline levels of IL6 as well as modulate the effects of UV-stimulated over-production of IL6. IL6 is marketed by Sederma as a molecule that can restore cytokine equilibrium, which characterizes youthful skin.
Found in SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution serum and Relax Plus with Vialox®. Pentapeptide-3 (Vialox) is a powerful yet safe wrinkle-relaxer that acts similarly to curare, the powerful paralytic nerve agent. As with curare, this powerful peptide acts at the post-synaptic membrane. The peptide prevents release of the sodium ion necessary for muscle receptors to receive nerve signals that cause the muscles to contract. The muscle stays relaxed and lines are not formed.
Calming Bio-Lipid Repair Creme includes Rosemary as an Active Ingredient. Rosemary contains a phyto-lipid that helps skin to repair its protective barrier. Over time, it can inspire skin to increase its barrier lipid production by up to 450%. The result is increased moisture retention and a softer, smoother, plumper skin.
Calming Bio-Lipid Repair Creme with Sea Whip as an Active Ingredient calms and soothes skin prone to irritation. Sea Whip provides the strongest soothing action of all sea plant-derived extracts. Helps to reduce visible redness and other signs of sensitivity.
Eye Bright Treatment Serum contains soy peptides to stimulate fibroblast proliferation and increase collagen and elastin synthesis. This results in firmer-looking skin. Soy Peptides are used to help prevent proteinase activity (as a result of exposure to UV light and ozone) from degrading collagen bundles in the skin. They can also can help to lighten hyperpigmentation and act as an anti-irritant, reducing inflammation.
Found in SuperMax Multi-Peptide Skin Solution. Tripeptide has been developed as an efficient smoothing and anti-wrinkle small peptide particularly effective against expression lines by relaxing facial muscles. This active tripeptide acts in a manner similar to Walglerin 1. Acting at the post-synaptic membrane, Tripeptide is a reverible antagonist of the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (mnAChR). Tripeptide binds to the receptor; consequently it remains closed. In the closed state, sodium ions (Na+) are not released and the muscles stay relaxed. Clinical trials have shown that Tripeptide is capable of reducing expression lines/wrinkles by inhibiting muscle contractions.
Relax Plus with Vialox® is our strongest wrinkle relaxing product. Vialox® contains a curare-like active pentapeptide. This peptide acts in a manner similar to that of tubocurarin, main active compound of curare. As with curare, Vialox® acts at the post-synaptic membrane. The peptide prevents release of the sodium ion necessary for muscle receptors to receive nerve signals that cause the muscles to contract. The muscle stays relaxed and lines are not formed.
Eye Bright Treatment Serum uses yeast proteins to improve the microcirculation of the skin by increasing cell respiration. Improved circulation in the under-eye area reduces fluid accumulation that can lead to puffiness and bags.